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All living things must adapt in order to survive in their environment, the species that is better adapted will be able to live longer in this environment and pass on their genotype as much as possible through evolution.

The Cactus

Firstly we shall look at how a plant is adapted to a very warm climate.

drawing of a cactus, above and below ground

These are just some of the many adaptations it has to help it to survive:

Needles instead of leaves to reduce the surface area that is in contact with the air so minimizing water loss by transpiration. Also, the stomata are surrounded by hairs that reduces the loss of water and the leaves have a thick waxy cuticle.

A large network of roots collects as much water as possible, and once it is collected, the cactus has a large capacity to store this water.

The Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus)

Now we shall have a look at have an animal is adapted to living in a cold environment.

photograph of a polar bear.

These are some of the adaptions the polar bear has to help it survive:

The white fur camoflages, so the bear can creep up it's prey (mainly seals) without being seen. And the fat it gets from feeding is stored all over the body so less heat is lost.

The paws are covered in thick hairs so that they don't freeze when the bear walks across the arctic ground. It's hair follicles are hollow to so warm air is trapped and insulates.