Welcome to Organic Chemistry

Organic Chemistry is defined as the study of carbon compounds.

thumbnail Polymers
Large molecule made from smaller units (monomers) also known as plastics. Polythene is made by using a heated catalyst. Addition polymers from C=C bonds such as polystyrene. Condensation polymers such as nylon. See Polymers

thumbnail Nomenclature
Nomenclature is a system of naming, this is important in organic chemistry. Naming rules based on functional group and homologous series. Counting the number of carbons. Empirical, structural and molecular formulae. See Nomenclature

thumbnail NMR Spectroscopy
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy to determine a structure using hydrogen atoms. Different peaks based on different chemical environments. In high resolution splitting occurs producing doublets, triplets etc. See NMR Spectroscopy

thumbnail Mass and Infra-Red Spectroscopy
Mass spectroscopy uses the mass spectrometer to make fragments, the relative atomic mass of these is used. Infra-red uses the fact different bonds absorb the radiation at different frequencies. These are seen on the graphs. See Mass and Infra-red Spectroscopy

thumbnail Isomerism
Structural isomers (same formula different structures, chain, position); Geometrical isomers (stereoisomerism, cis trans, spacial arrangement around double carbon); Optical isomers (around a chiral carbon, enantiomers and racemates). See Isomerism

thumbnail Haloalkanes
A haloalkane is an alkane with a halogen molecule. The C-Hal bond is polar so is susceptibile to nucleophillic attack. The mechanisms for nucleophillic substitution and elimination. And how to determine whether it will happen. See Haloalkanes

thumbnail Esters
Sweet-smelling compounds producued by reacting a carboxylic acid and alcohol. The alcohol making the acyl group. Esters can be used in flavourings, for instance the sweets pear drops, which give them their distinctive flavour. See Esters

thumbnail Epoxyethane
Or ethylene oxide is produced by reacting ethene with oxygen in particular conditions. It is a very reactive substance and is used as part of the manufacture of diols which are used in antifreeze solutions. See Epoxyethane

thumbnail Carbonyl
Aldehydes and ketones are both carbonyls having the C=O bond. It is possible to test between these using Tollens and Fehlings tests. Acylation mechanism of substituion-elimination to produce acyls. See Carbonyl

thumbnail Aromatic Compounds
The benzene ring (C6H6) with a cloud of delocalised electrons conferring stability. Nitration of benzene to an amine. Electrophillic attack. The Friedel-Crafts Reactions (alkylation and acylation) to make an electrophile. See Aromatic Compounds

thumbnail Amines and Amino Acids
Amines have functional group N and can be primary, secondary or tertiary. Amines can be made by the nucleophillic substitution of ammonia and amines with haloalkanes. Amino acid structure, the R group and proteins. See Amines and Amino Acids

thumbnail Alkenes
Alkenes are unsaturated, having a double covalent C=C bond. Cracking breaks large hydrocarbons to smaller alkenes can be thermal or catalytic. Electrophillic addition to an alkene of bromide, as in bromine water test. See Alkenes

thumbnail Alkanes
Alkanes are unsaturated hydrocarbons. Their combustion and the catalytic converter. Chlorination of methane in ultra-violet light: initiation, propagation, termination. Distinguishing between alkenes and alkanes by bromine water. See Alkanes

thumbnail Alcohols
Alcohols have an C-OH functional group. They can be primary, secondary or tertiary. Ethanol can be manufactured by fermentation (drinks) or from ethene (industrial). Alcohols can be oxidized to an aldehyde then carboxylic acid. See Alcohols