Welcome to the Chemistry area of the site, here you can browse the different catagories we have and have a look at the different pages available.

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Steel - making steel, oxygen lance, steel alloys.
Salt Solubility - which is which? preparation.
Crude Oil - fractional distilation, fractions.


Bonding - ionic, covalent, metallic.
Atom - proton, electron, neutron, isotopes.
Equations - basic chemical equations, calculations.


Halogens - properties, halides, salt formation.
Lewis - acids and bases, metal-aqua ion, acidity.
Noble Gases - structure, uses, balloons.


Carbonyl - aldehydes and ketones, testing, acylation.
Epoxyethane - production, properties, uses.
Esters - manufacture, pear drops.


Enthalpy - enthalpy of combusion, formation, calorimetry.
Hess's Law - introduction, using cycles, bond enthalpies.
Kinetics - rate equation, orders of reaction, units of k.

Blast Furnace

The blast furnace is used to extract iron from haematite. Carbon monoxide is the reducing agent and heated air is added to move the reaction. The products from the blast furnace are molten slag and molten airs.

States and Shapes

Molecules have different shapes, we look at the simple shapes of covalent molecules and the bond angles, including the well-known tetrahedral. States of matter, and different types of crystals.


Alcohols have an C-OH functional group. They can be primary, secondary or tertiary. Ethanol can be manufactured by fermentation (drinks) or from ethene (industrial). Alcohols can be oxidized to an aldehyde then carboxylic acid.

Acids and Bases

Acid and bases are defined in terms of protons in this definitions; giving rise the the value of pH. The ionic product of water is Kw can be used in calculations and Ka for weak dissociation.